Health Questions and Answers

Question: What are the poor prognostic factors in primary breast cancer?


  1. Estrogen or progesterone receptors negative
  2. Positive HER-2/neu status
  3. Premenopausal patient
  4. Large tumor size
  5. Positive axillary nodes
  6. Local skin involvement
  7. Fixed axillary nodes
  8. Distant metastasis
  9. Aneuploidy and high cathepsin D
  10. Nuclear grade 3 (poor)
  11. High S-phase fraction

Reference: Casciato DA, Lowitz BB (eds): Manual of Clinical Oncology, 5th ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 2000.

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