Health Questions and Answers

Question: What are the six common vitamins and trace minerals and the clinical manifestations of their respective deficiency states?


  1. Thiamine: beriberi, muscle weakness, tachycardia, heart failure
  2. Niacin: pellagra, glossitis
  3. Vitamin A: xerophthalmia, hyperkeratosis of skin
  4. Vitamin E: cerebellar ataxia, areflexia
  5. Zinc: hypogeusia, acrodermatitis
  6. Chromium: glucose intolerance

Reference: Sleisenger MH, Fordtran JS (eds): Gastrointestinal Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, 7th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 2003

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