Health Questions and Answers

Question: What are the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease?


    • Age: male ≥ 45 years, female ≥ 55 years
    • Family history: coronary heart disease (CHD) in a male first-degree relative < 55 years or female first-degree relative < 65 years
    • Current cigarette smoking
    • Hypertension (≥ 140/90 mmHg or on antihypertensive medications)
    • Low HDL cholesterol: < 40 mg/dL (Note: High HDL-c is a negative risk factor; if the patient has a level > 60 mg/dL, subtract one risk factor.)

Reference: Larson PR, et al: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 10th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 2003.



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