Health Questions and Answers

Question: What are the major classes of lipoprotein particles?

Answer:

Lipoproteins are named based on their density and are composed of nonpolar (and therefore water-insoluble) cholesterol esters and triglycerides surrounded by a layer of polar (and therefore water-soluble) proteins and lipids (unesterified cholesterol and phospholipids). This structure allows the entire particle to remain miscible in serum.

LIPOPROTEIN PARTICLES

Lipoprotein Particle Location of Origin Composition Apoproteins Associated Disorders
Chylomicron Intestine 80-95% TG Apo B48 Chylomicronemia
    3-7% chol    
VLDL Liver 50-65% TG Apo B100 Familial hyper triglyceridemia
    20-30% chol    
        Familial combined hyperlipidemia
Remnants and IDL Catabolism ofVLDL & chylomicrons 30-40% TG
30-50% chol
Depends on particle of origin Familial dysbeta-lipoproteinemia (Broad beta disease)
LDL IDL, VLDL remnants 4-10% TG
45-55% chol
B-100 Familial hypercholesterolemia,
        Familial combined hyperlipidemia
HDL Liver, intestine 3-7% TG
25% chol
Apo A Tangier’s disease
 

VLDL = very low density particle, LDL = low-density particle, ID = intermediate density particle, HDL = high-density particle, TG = triglycerides, chol = cholesterol.

Reference: American Heart Association: www.americanheart.org

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